Branding Business

Safety Ways To Protect Your Brand Data

Businesses have started using more and more data in recent years. This is a direct result of technology making its way into the hands of everyday businesses rather than just the largest companies. Now that a business of any size can collect data, you better understand what to do with the data after you have gathered it. It is not a good idea to store all your collected data in only one database on a single server.

There is more to protecting your hard-fought business data than having space on a database server. Business owners who are not tech-savvy may face additional challenges they never predicted when they started using data. Let other teams worry about how to best use your data while you spend some time putting together a plan to keep your data safe. It is impossible to make your data entirely secure forever, still there are ways to protect it. Here is how:

Software And Program Protections

There are many fronts on which you need to defend your data, and software is one such area. There are people out there who enjoy wreaking havoc on business servers and messing with data. To keep any unwanted breachers out, you need strong protections that will stop inappropriate remote access. Sometimes the same program that collects data for you will monitor your databases, like the PI system. Alternatively, you can set up your own network of protections.

If you do not have a protection and monitoring program already and cannot build one yourself, it is worth calling a security expert. They will assist you as this is an area where good enough will not work in the long-run. Your protection software should also include an access system where anyone who accesses the data is logged with unique passwords. So, if something goes wrong, you can see who the last person was to access the point.

Best Storage Practices

Data may not look like much, but once you start collecting it, it can create an incredible amount of digital information. Storage space can get expensive and tricky to maintain, but you can alleviate some of that worry by only storing the data you actually need. It may be tempting to hold onto every bit of data you have gathered over the years, but some of that data is useless. Not only does extra data fill up your stage, but if your database is breached, your customers will be the ones who pay for your data hoarding. Do not put your customers at risk over data you are not using anyway.

Physical Database

Maintain your physical database. Your data does not exist in the air as it is tied to a physical computer. That physical computer may be stuffed in the corner of the office, but it still needs attention and protection. If you have a physical access point for your database, it must be protected with a locked door and a unique password system. You do not want just anyone walking up to that pc and plugging in a simple USB drive that can ruin your entire system. Just because you trust your employees and visitors does not mean that security precautions are pointless.

Check Hardware

Computers can work for years on end, but they still need maintenance. Dust and hair will choke cooling fans over time, and you will need to open up the system to clean it out. If your computer overheats, it may shut down to protect itself from thermal damage. You will have to fix the issue or face potential damages. If you are not storing your data in the cloud or in a different system, you must also take care of your storage devices.

Spinning hard drives are still the common choice for mass storage. Do not be mistaken by drives designed to work in less than ideal conditions, those can fail after a few years as well. When a drive fails, you may lose data depending on how you have your storage set up. For a mass storage setup, get drives with the most extensive storage space you can find. Leave it in UNRAID with backup drive resiliencies to rebuild your data if one drive fails.

Back Up Everything You Care About

Most people never think about the day where everything goes wrong, and therefore, do not make plans to ensure that day never comes. Backing up your data is not fun or exciting, but you will be happy to have a separate copy if something happens to your primary data stash. You can pay for an off-site copy server that will automatically store a copy of anything on your central server. However, it is also possible to create a backup system in-house. There are massive external storage drives that you can stack together to create a brick of backup storage.


Everything You Need to Know about Database Marketing

Using data for business purposes, especially marketing is not a new concept as large companies have had access to extensive datasheets for years. However, now that everyday people and businesses of any size can collect and use data, the practice is no longer exclusive to businesses with large budgets. There are many things a business can do with data, but one of the most popular uses is marketing. Databases can flex to be a valuable tool in many different areas.

However, most businesses will use databases for marketing, and there are multiple uses even within the subcategory of data marketing. Any size business can effectively use database marketing to great success, but there are things you need to know before you start, so ensure you know all the critical entails before you invest in new systems. Sadly, it is impossible to comprehensively list all the vital aspects you need to know about database marketing, but you can see the essential details with tips and tricks below.

What Is Database Marketing

The simplest definition for database marketing is using data within a database to inform and or create marketing materials. The database itself is just the housing or structure for the information within, and it is that information that is the genuinely critical element. The information within a business’s database should be monitored by protection software like Citrix Cloud because it is the valuable content that the marketing team will use to make better ads and bring in more sales. However, databases do not simply appear already filled with the data you need. Businesses are responsible for gathering their own data or paying outside parties for their data as individual databases are only as populated as the owners make them.

How To Fill Out A Database With Useful Data

A database is only as useful as the information within it, and you want to fill your database with high-quality information that is relevant to your future business plans. Thankfully, gathering or paying for data is easier than ever. Many customers will willingly hand over their data for free or post it online, where any business can scoop it up. Customers will give you their name and email address to sign up for a newsletter, complete an order, ask a question in customer support, and more. If a customer makes an account on your website, you get even more information.

If you are having a hard time getting enough data from your own audience, you can pay 3rd party businesses for the data they have gathered already. There is no shortage of data on the Internet, and it is all relatively easy for a business of any size to access, but you must also know what to do with extensive collections of data as raw data will not help many people understand the situation better.

How To Use A Database For Marketing

Once you have a database with the data you need for marketing efforts, it is time to put it to work. However, raw data is not helpful to many people, and you should take the time to parse your database to ensure the data your marketing team uses is accurate and relevant. Another crucial part of using a database is managing data decay so you do not work from erroneous data, which can lead to the wrong conclusions or results. You should also check for inaccuracies as humans make typos, and some fields can have the wrong format, so set up a filter system that will find oddities within your database.

Once you are confident your data is accurate, relevant, and appropriately presented, you can start to analyze the results. With a database, you can find your target audience and how that compares to your current audience. You can sort customer data based on income, family size, geographic location, education level, gender, job title, interests, purchase history, and more to find exactly what you are looking for. With access to this detailed information, your various teams can work more effectively.

Your marketing team can create copy for new personalized messages that engineers can create a system to deliver based on data selection. Even if it takes time to make new content with your database, you will find areas where you can stop wasting resources. Data may show that some of your old methods are ineffective and those resources would be better used for other projects. Data also helps your employees after a sale finishes as customer service agents can use customer information to support them better, giving your brand a more positive public reputation.

Sales Profession

Professional Growth in 2021: Tips to Make it Happen

As we march further into 2021, working professionals are anxious to grow this year, but they still face challenges as the world has not returned to what we remember before 2020. The past year was brutal and challenging for everyone. It is pushing more people to make 2021 truly count and achieve goals despite the ongoing historical events. The professional world has changed so much in such a short amount of time that it can be tricky to know where to start. However, by embracing the changes in our work lives, we can find areas to grow professionally and progress in spite of all the various challenges thrown our way. You also have a range of options as there is no single way to work on professional growth in 2021. Think outside of the box and use the tips and tricks below to get started on your professional growth for 2021 and form habits that will help you well into the future.

Find A Healthy Work-Life Balance

Before you can genuinely set out to grow as a professional, you need the spare time to dedicate to growth and new opportunities, but that is much harder to do if your work-life balance is askew. There is no sense in working yourself to exhaustion as you should always have time for yourself and time to recharge. There is more to life than work, so take the time to evaluate how much time you spend working vs. how much time you spend doing whatever you want. If that balance of work to life is out of whack, you are likely to burn out faster and not enjoy the fruits of your labor.

Part of growing as a professional is knowing when something is too much and must change for your own health and wellbeing. Employers that push unhealthy work hours might not be violating safety culture in traditional terms of physical danger, like when working with heavy machines, but overworking employees will cause damage over time. Figure out what work hours are reasonable for your health and either take steps to fix your current work hours or find a new job that will not ask you to work as much. In this new age of business and investment you need think out of the box. You will find different online Investment option. Coins investment is a new one and learns the way to purchase dogecoin.

Learn A New Skill

One of the best ways to grow as a professional is to expand your range of skills. Learning a new skill does not even need to directly relate to your current job or career, as learning new topics and expanding yourself as a person will always help you grow professionally. You can give yourself a professional edge with a varied background and diverse set of skills, even if they are not all directly related. Someone who takes the time to learn about IT in their spare time could become an unexpected benefit to a roofing company that does not know much about computers. Learning something new is never a bad idea and will often lead to opportunities where you can use your new skills.

Time Management And Organization

If you want to expand your professional capabilities, you need more time in the day to fit new activities in, but that is easier said than done. However, many people who claim to have no free time actually have no time management skills nor an organizational system. You may have more free time in your day than you realize because it is taken up by poor planning, taking too long on the wrong tasks, distractions, poor organization, and more. Look at what you do every day and consider what tasks could be done faster or managed better. You also work faster when everything you need is within reach rather than scattered around your space. If you know exactly where to look for the paper you need to finish a task, you will finish with that task faster, so you can move on to something else. You will enjoy the feeling of being done with your routine tasks faster, and it might even spark the energy you need to do something you have been putting off or inspire you to keep improving yourself.


Everyone went through a tough year in 2020, and many of those challenges are continuing into 2021. It can be hard to think of ways to improve yourself within your current life in such historic and unpredictable times, but it is possible with some hard work and self-reflection. Find a healthy work-life balance, focus on time management and organization to reduce wasted time, and consider learning a new skill to keep your brain sharp and your curiosity peaked.


3 Ways a Bridge Loan Can Benefit You

If you need short-term funding while you wait for or work to organize long-term financing, a bridge loan from private bridge lenders may be the best option for you. Here are three reasons this loan makes a good option.

1. They are fast

One of the biggest benefits of bridge loans for businesses and homebuyers is that they come together quickly because they are designed to “bridge the gap” between when financing is available but not available.

2. They help businesses cover expenses when cash flow is low

Because bridge loans are quick to get and short-term, they can help businesses that are low in cash because of a seasonal slump or that are awaiting payment for a major piece of business.

3. They allow you to place a contingency-free offer on a new home

When there are multiple offers on a home, being able to make an offer that isn’t reliant on you selling your house could make you stand out amongst the owners. A borrower can use a portion of their bridge loan to pay off their current mortgage while using the rest as a down payment on a new home. This could make the difference between you or another buyer getting your dream home, it could also enable your family to make a quick move should you be relocated or should you find your current living situation inadequate.


11 Ways To Do Branding For Ecommerce Business

According to Seth Godin “A brand is a set of expectations, memories, stories, and relationships that, taken together, account for a consumer’s decision to choose one product or service over another.”

The audience interacts with your brand and brand’s reputation when they decide to make a purchase. Throughout this article, we will learn tremendous ways of branding for the eCommerce business so let’s start.

  1. Create A Brand Logo & Name

A logo is a graphic mark, sign, symbol, or stylized name used to identify a company, group, product, or brand. It may take the form of an abstract or symbolic design, or it may exist as a stylized form of the company’s name. Through an influential logo, a company’s brand can leave a lifetime impression on customers.

Various things need to consider while creating a brand logo and name. 

  • Select the finest platform
  • The logo should be inspirational
  • Text font size should be decent
  • The objective of the brand should be familiar
  • Size and color of the logo matters
  • Uniqueness of logo
  • Design logo after considering competitor’s logo

There are numerous platform available for creating logo like 

  • Designmantic
  • Online Logo Maker
  • LogoMakr
  • Squarespace
  • Logo Maker
  • Design Hill
  • Zillion Designs
  • Shopify
  1. Create A Brand Slogan

A brand slogan is the publicity tagline that carries the brand’s essence in the straight way possible. In short, the brand slogan is expected to hold the vibe of the brand. Brand slogan carries core values, personality, and positioning of a brand.

The main objective to make a slogan is to affect the buyer’s purchase decision and sell the company’s product and services to various shoppers. Some examples of popular brand slogans are

  • McDonald’s – “I’m Lovin’ It”
  • Red Bull – “It Gives You Wings!”
  • Google – “Don’t Be Evil”
  • Apple – “Think Different”
  • Kit Kat – “Have a Break, Have a Kit Kat”

Tips to consider before creating a brand slogan, have a look 

  • Pair your slogan with a powerful logo
  • Take sufficient time
  • Keep it simple that instantly resonate with the audience
  • Make slogan even more memorable by adding humor
  • rhythm and rhyme should be present
  1. Identify Your Brand’s Target Audience

The growth of any business depends on the target audience. It’s very necessary to identify the target audience for a better understanding of the wants and needs of the right audience. Various facts get clear when online site sellers Identify their Target Audience are given below.

  • Who is the right audience for their business?
  • Which services and products are required by the target audience?
  • Which content is relevant to target viewers?
  • How to Answers the inquiries of target viewers?
  1. Leverage Social Media Platforms

Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram provide a suitable platform for advertisement. With social media, online stores can offer information about their company products and services to a large number of audiences. There will be higher chances of involvement with more audiences when they are active on social sites.

There are various benefits of advertising on social media that are given below. 

  • Brand awareness will be increased on a wide level
  • The conversion rate will be increased
  • Assist in targeting the audience
  • Customer outreach will be enhanced
  1. Create an Application for Your eCommerce store

More people are using mobile phones to search for products and purchase. The mobile application also becomes significant for the growth of eCommerce stores. Dependency on mobile phones is increasing day by day from entertainment to Shopping.

Significance of mobile app for an eCommerce store

  • Audience activity will be enhanced
  • More personalized user experience
  • Cart abandonment rate will decrease
  • SEO will improve resulting in higher visibility
  1. Outline the Key Benefits of Your Brand

It is essential to outline the key benefits of the brand and make it widespread as every other brand has some positive points in their brand. eye-catchy logo, tagline, and do social media posting to outline the brand’s quality and benefits. It is necessary to showcase your brand differently from competitors.

Significance of outlining the key benefits of brand

  • Customer recognition
  • Customer loyalty
  • Ease in distinguishing the brand
  • Brand equity
  1. Enhance Email Marketing

Email marketing helps in attracting customers regarding the brand. Email marketing is suitable for large as well as small and medium-sized businesses. Past shopping behavior is considered while selecting target customers for email marketing.  As per the reports, the number of active email users is expected to increase by 4.2 billion by the end of 2022.

Benefits of email marketing 

  • Wide audience outreach with an increase in revenue
  • Ease in including offers and rewards to customers
  • Cost-effective
  • Measuring the result is an easy task
  1. Make A Content Strategy

Content marketing is the most efficient way to provide a better identity to the brand. Through content, customer loyalty is easy to gain towards the brand. Content Is required at each time whenever posting on social media, sending emails to your customer, providing offers/discounts/rewards. Content marketing content includes white papers, eBooks, videos, infographics, blog posts, product demos, or case studies.

Significance of content strategy are

  • Customer engagement will increase
  • Customer loyalty will be enhanced
  • Conversion will go upward
  • Brand awareness
  1. By Improving Customer Service

For to increase customer experience there is a need to put the focus on customer service. Come rain or shine good customer service will attract customers to come back again and again to your store.

Tips to consider for improved customer service

  • Customer engagement
  • Feedback is necessary to ask
  • Understanding the requirement of shopper
  • Effective communication is required to have
  • Train the staff members for customer dealings.


  1. By Sharing The Story of Your Company

Customers feel more attached to the brand when they know about the story of your company. Customers should know about the past failures of the company and how your company achieved the present profitable position of the company.

Informing people and other marketers about the struggle will make them inspire towards the company’s work.


  1. By Refining Your Marketing Strategies

Nothing remains constant with changing trends and technology marketing strategy should be changed accordingly. There is a constant need to find new strategies and up-gradation in marketing strategies.


Wrapping up 

“Brand is just a perception, and perception will match reality over time.” – Elon Musk.

It does not happen overnight; it requires years of hard work to make a normal brand a popular brand. For branding an e-commerce website these tips will be extremely beneficial. In the initial phase, more investment is required but once you have established your brand name you can make more revenue for your brand.


Essential Checklist Tips To Boost Your Online Presence in 2021

As technology continues to bring more people online, businesses will have to work even harder to maintain their spot among the growing crowd. Standing out for the right reasons, keeping your customers happy, and remaining relevant is more complicated than ever as more competition adds to the noise ceiling businesses are always trying to outrun. A stable and positive online presence is critical for any business as even brick-and-mortar stores need online discoverability.

Some businesses may wish there was a single proven method to guarantee a better online presence, but the truth is that crafting a positive online presence in 2021 requires effort using a variety of different methods over time. An online presence can slip in one moment but take sustained planning and implementation to recover. Use the tips and tricks below to boost or rebuild your online presence in 2021.

Make Social Media A Priority

Social media is one of the technological advances that brought more people online as everyone wants to know what is being discussed on these massive platforms. As more people join social media platforms, it becomes even more critical for your business to participate and be seen on those social sites. You do not need the social marketing genius of brands like Wendy’s to be successful, but showing your brand has a personality, and your company holds specific values is always a good thing to show potential and returning customers.

You can put a wide variety of content on social media to raise your presence and reputation at the same time. Participate in charity drives, help your local community, engage with customer comments or questions, and use ad slots to post direct response marketing content that will get you fast clicks. Do not be afraid to shake off the faceless company feel in exchange for making your brand feel more like a person as customers want to engage with people, not corporate robots.

Mobile Optimization Is Not Optional

When most people think of computers and online browsing, they still picture a desktop or laptop, but those users are no longer the majority. In 2020, mobile users overtook traditional desktop users as the majority of Internet traffic. The race between the two platforms is close, but the current pc parts shortage and increased tariffs are forcing more people to stick with their current hardware or make do with mobile power.

While it may sound crazy that more people are browsing from their phones and tablets than proper computers, but the smart devices we carry around are far more powerful than desktop computers from a few years ago. Now that mobile users are such a large percentage, businesses cannot ignore mobile optimization any longer and expect to get maximum results still.

Put in the necessary time and effort to optimize your online content for mobile users, so you do not cut out half of your potential customers. You want to be as accessible and inviting as possible to increase your presence, reputation, and sales rate.

How To Be Seen

One of the best ways to raise your online presence is to get your name out there and in front of as many eyes as possible. There are many ways to get your brand’s name seen by more people, but the best method is to use all the methods to their fullest potential. Use SEO best practices on your website and posted content to make your company easier to find in search, but understand SEO methods are not known for fast results as it could be months before you see a measurable difference. Influencer marketing is a common tactic on social media where your brand partners with an influencer in the same niche or market.

The influencer gets a free product or a payment, and your brand gets to borrow the influencer’s authority and credibility to marketing to new customers. If a popular streamer promotes your product, your product was just recommended to the streamer’s audience, and customers are more willing to listen to their favorite streamer than an online ad. You can also combine influencer marketing with standard email and social media marketing to show off the partnership even more.

The Internet is a vast place that will only continue to grow over time, and any business working in the digital space must keep up its online presence to stay relevant. Put more thought and effort into your social media strategies, optimize all your content for mobile users, and use a combination of methods to make your brand seen by more people more frequently.


Benefits of teleworking for the environment

Telecommuting has become an everyday activity after the arrival of the COVID-19 in 2020. Although previously many companies promoted it, today it is the most common form of work. However, the benefits it brings to the environment have been much discussed, which is why today we want to point them out.

Does teleworking benefit the environment?

The answer to this question is yes. As you will read below, the benefits of teleworking for the environment are numerous and, above all, very relevant for nature. Join us to get to know them in detail


Reduces CO 2 emissions

The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are one of the main culprits of destroying the ozone layer. These emissions are generated mainly from cars’ use; therefore, reducing their use, thanks to teleworking, has helped considerably reduce these polluting gases.

Less use of paper

Paper in the office sometimes becomes indispensable for making deliveries or simply jotting down notes in meetings. With teleworking, its use has been reduced to a great extent, which generates a decrease in energy used in its production.

Reduce energy use

Achieving energy savings in the office can be difficult, depending on the type of equipment used. Typically these workspaces are equipped with multiple computers or laptops (depending on the number of employees), light bulbs, printers, photocopiers and, above all, air conditioning systems whose energy consumption is high.

Fortunately, teleworking has managed to reduce the use of electricity in these spaces, taking into account that offices consume twice and much energy as homes.

Less use of plastic

If you were one of the people who used to buy packaged food to take to work and eat or snack as soon as possible, its reduction might have been noticeable since you have teleworked.

The fight against the use of plastic is still being practised and, if from home we can help reduce it, let’s tries to maintain our habits to replace plastic with other less polluting materials. The planet will appreciate it!

Decrease environmental pollution

Environmental pollution occurs in large cities due to the use of cars and many passersby’s routine on the main streets and avenues. With teleworking, the reduction of this type of pollution has benefited.

The pollution of the soil, of the air and noise pollution or noise, mainly has declined since more companies adopted the measures telecommuting for their employees to the onset of the global pandemic.

Delays climate change

Finally, due to the benefits of telework mentioned in the previous points, it is believed that this form of work may delay the effects of climate change. Therefore, its advantages positively affect not only the present but also the future of the environment.

Benefits for the worker

As you can see, the benefits of teleworking to the environment are relevant for the planet. However, not only nature is the primary beneficiary of this modality, so are the workers who now enjoy:

Comfort for the worker.

. The balance between work and personal life.

. Stress reduction

Saving money (by not having to use the car or public transport to get around);

. Higher productivity;

Regarding this last benefit of teleworking, the report “The future of work after COVID-19”, carried out by the consultancy Robert Walters, shows that workers are more productive working from home.

According to the report, 47% of professionals acknowledge having achieved better results since working under this modality. Therefore, it is an aspect that also benefits companies and the success of operating day activities.

Telework responsibly!

Suppose you are also teleworking from home, the corner bar or your children’s favourite park. In that case, it is essential that you consider different aspects to telework responsibly and, thus, continue helping the planet with the above benefits. How can you do it? Very easy:

. Use efficient computers to carry out your day-to-day tasks. Take into account the consumption of the desktop or laptop computer and notify your company immediately in case of identifying problems.

. If you use a laptop, do not keep the equipment connected to electricity throughout your workday. Please take advantage of its battery and carry out the necessary changes to continue working.

. Select a workplace with enough natural lighting, preferably near windows, so that you get the most out of the daylight.

Eat healthy snacks and drink plenty of water.

After finishing work, disconnect and take the time to take a walk in the outside world.

In short, teleworking is an activity that, although not everyone is used to doing it, is becoming more and more common, which is why we must adapt to new trends and take advantage of its endless benefits.

If you telecommute, tell us about your experience in the comments and don’t forget to share this article with your colleagues. From our workspaces, we can help the environment.



“Discovery”, the new marketing paradigm

Optimized public relations requires a new vision in which data over search intention takes precedence

(Expansion) – Who has not used the web or social media search engines to find information about products or services that they need, without knowing the name of the particular brands? The data doesn’t lie: The vast majority (87%) of shoppers begin their shopping journey on digital channels, according to Salesforce research. And boy did 2020 give this habit a boost!

Learn more

This trend of searching the web and doing it more precisely is giving more relevance to marketing executed with an SEO strategy (optimization techniques to rank better in searches).

marketing paradigm

In this scenario, public relations are taking an increasingly relevant role as part of integrated marketing communications; Now, in addition to creating awareness and visibility for brands, these strategies have the challenge of maximizing the capacity for discovery at the points of contact with customers and potential customers who, during their shopping trip, are looking for information according to their interests and motivations. Specific, and in the formats they like to consume.

New features for public relations

By driving greater possibilities for discovery on the web, public relations actions help to ensure that brands reach the right audience, with the right content and at the right times; triggering two-way conversations to increase brand awareness and generate engagement – involvement with the brand-.

Although achieving ‘discoverable’ brands has been, until now, a task-focused on digital marketing, especially through actions such as paid content and ads (online ads); From my perspective, the online brand discovery has become the new paradigm of integrated marketing -including public relations-, in whose function as optimized PR will be the creation of a strategy of earned media that are written, published and shared in so that maximum search engine discoverability is achieved.

These actions require credible and authentic content, offering deep insight and advice on multiple aspects of the topic to engage the reader, writing first for the reader and then for the search engines.

It does not mean that public relations are losing its essence, rather it is an optimization to adapt to the current business environment and consumer habits.

On the other hand, this online discovery function of brands becomes a kind of the cherry on the cake that crowns many of the public relations efforts that we already carry out today and that are fully linked to demonstrate the importance and the true impact of PR on business results.

Traditional RP + Digital RP: the perfect match for the engagement

Under this new role, an optimized PR strategy paves the way for brands to leverage the benefits of the traditional PR + digital PR formula (which I referred to in another Expansion article) to maximize discovery search capabilities to the length and breadth of an integral strategy (PESO marketing model) based on a multiplatform content based on SEO, which, when distributed through the different channels, helps target audiences to discover our brand in any of the contact points. Thus we arrive at the final result of the formula: traditional PR + digital PR = the perfect dumbbell to generate engagement.

Optimized PR requires a new vision in which data over search intent, SEO-optimized value content that responds to our buyer persona’s searches, and accurate distribution take precedence.

With this in mind, many of the brands may think that a public relations strategy is only for a large brand or to achieve a global online presence.

However, given the current digital landscape, where isolation is a common denominator and people use online channels to find out and buy; all businesses need a strategy that makes them be discovered in online channels, from the web search engines themselves to the social networks where their audiences are connected.

Today businesses have the challenge of ensuring that their brands are visible and found on the web, because in this lies the difference between success and failure; And when PRs perform these strategies correctly they add immense value to brand content and extend its useful life.

Sales Profession

11 Reasons to Go into the Sales Profession

What is paradoxical about this situation, in which we find ourselves, with a rampant crisis and unemployment levels never before known, is that with more than 20% unemployment in this country, companies are still looking for good professionals trained in the areas of the sales and marketing.

We are in a situation not experienced to date, and that for that reason has caught us lacking in preparation. Companies have lost a good market share due to a decline in consumption and an excess supply generated by the past good times, and they are now looking for professional salespeople, willing to return them to desirable market shares.

For this reason, companies are looking for professionals who are willing, not only to carry out a job effectively, but also to have attitudes towards the client that make them interact regularly with our company.

 Go into the Sales Profession

They are demanding prepared people, with a bomb-proof ego, persevering, decisive, tireless and willing to stoically bear the denial that the market will transmit to them at this time.

Until 2008, growth was relatively easy for companies, since their own inertia within their sectors helped them to acquire their own market shares.

But currently, clients no longer call with the intensity of yesteryear (except those who want an improvement in the conditions to continue working with us), now we have to go to convince them that our proposals are better than those of our competition, than our Articles and services offer greater and better results.

But in order to carry out this work we must be prepared, and in turn prepare our staff. It is now when good salespeople justify why they are.

Along these lines, I dare to affirm that of the global set of that 20% of unemployed, it is difficult to find good and trained salespeople. We will be able to find good professionals in many subjects, experts in endless fields, technically trained to guarantee quality work, but sales professionals and commercial experts will be difficult to find.

If on any occasion through no fault of his own, a good sales professional lost his job, the first thing he would do would be SELL HIMSELF.

If you have lost your job but consider yourself a good worker, methodical, disciplined, enthusiastic, think that there are companies that are willing to hire people like you for a world full of possibilities, such as the commercial world.

And finally, let me give you 10 + 1 reasons to dedicate yourself to the exciting world of sales.

11 Reasons to Go into the Sales Profession;

High degree of autonomy, you decide how to do your work, how to organize yourself, how to be more effective. Your degree of responsibility is high, but the trade-offs are worth it. No one will question anything while you achieve the proposed goals.

Free hours, there are no schedules in this job. You decide when to work, how much to work and how long you need to achieve your goals. You organize yourself as you wish and with all the dedication you consider necessary to succeed.

There is no unemployment in the sales sector. It is the sector of activity with the highest demand. If there is someone who says that he is a commercial and that he is unemployed, he does not deserve the professional category of “salesman”. As we say in our profession. “When a seller does not have to sell, he” sells “himself.”

Good economic retribution. We are rated higher than most qualified professionals. We create wealth for the company we work for, and companies are aware of this. As time goes by, we are still more profitable and earn more. We generate more net income than anyone else in an organization.

Added values, we have many added values ​​that are only available to the staff of the companies. (Allowances, expense notes, telephone, company car, etc.)

The most dynamic profession, it is the most dynamic there is between job offers; there is no opportunity for boredom. It is the profession that keeps the person who performs it young and agile (with the permission of athletes and physical educators).

You meet new people constantly. You meet new people permanently, away from the routine of the same faces every day within four walls for 8 hours of work. In each negotiation an opportunity to enrich ourselves with the knowledge that other people can contribute to us. Behind a door there is always someone interesting

Great promotion possibilities, many of the executives of the companies come from the sales departments. The companies are aware of the importance of our contribution and reward us with real possibilities of internal promotion.

High demand for professionals, 35% of national job demands go through the marketing and sales sector. Companies are constantly calling for people prepared and motivated to sell.

And every month, you pay double. Each month we can have a fixed salary and variable commissions, and in many cases, other strategic incentives as a reward: trips, gifts and even rappels at the end of the year for objectives achieved. It’s not extraordinary!

11: Everything in this life needs to be “sold”. Whatever you are, think how you think, whatever you do, all your desires, your projects and your needs, you have to know how to “sell” them. To your acquaintances, your partner, your friends, your boss, your clients, everyone with whom you are in contact, you try to “sell” something every day.

We live in a world of reciprocal influences; we are influenced or influenced by others. Why not know the rules and regulations that govern the world of influence? Why not know how to influence, how to “sell” our ideas? WHY NOT BE BETTER AT THE TIME OF “SELLING” ourselves? Why not be better when it comes to “INFLUENCE”?

Prepare and train for sales, there is a world of possibility within the any industry waiting for you.

Sales Strategies

The 10 elements to develop an effective purchasing department

We have already made it clear in another publication what supply is , so now we are going to review in detail what the purchasing or acquisitions department is, what its functions, objectives and characteristics are, as well as its importance within any company, its processes and best practices to develop an efficient purchasing department.

So let’s start from the beginning.

What is the purchasing or acquisitions department?

The definition of the purchasing or acquisitions department is understood as the area responsible for carrying out the purchase or acquisition of all the necessary goods that the company requires for its correct operation, at the correct time, with the specified quality and at the best cost.

purchasing or acquisitions department

Regardless of whether you work in a transnational company or if you manage a SME, you must find that the material you need to carry out your operations is obtained in a structured and planned way , and for that you must understand that the purchases (acquisitions) of a company They are a key piece to achieve higher profits and improve your production cycle, regardless of whether your company makes a product or provides a service.

The first thing we must do to develop an effective purchasing department is to define our policy and our processes, and for that you need to know the following.

What are the responsibilities of the purchasing department?

The responsibilities of the purchasing department are based on the process how the goods that the company needs are acquired, and these are:

. Procure the products and services that the other departments of the company require in order to carry out their activities.

. Negotiate prices, delivery conditions and payment terms with suppliers.

. Manage an effective relationship based on honesty with suppliers.

. Manage contracts and agreements, thinking about the best interests of the company.

. Achieve savings of at least 3 times what is invested (salaries, equipment, benefits) in the purchasing department.

What are the functions of the purchasing department?

functions of the purchasing department

The purchasing functions are closely related to the way in which the areas that need a supply make their request, since this will be the one that triggers the entire purchasing process. The functions of the purchasing department are:

  1. Process the purchase request in a timely manner
  2. Choosing the right suppliers to supply
  3. Get at least three quotes to compare prices and delivery conditions
  4. Negotiate with suppliers
  5. Issue the purchase order (including purchase specifications) to the supplier
  6. Track delivery with suppliers
  7. Provide feedback to applicants on the status of their order
  8. Facilitate payment to suppliers
  9. Analyze market trends
  10. Negotiate contracts and agreements
  11. Find alternative suppliers to the supplies that are considered necessary
  12. Evaluate the performance of suppliers before and after making a purchase

We will see all these functions in more detail in other articles due to their importance.

What are the purchasing objectives?

These objectives will largely depend on the results you want to achieve for your company, since these will be the watershed to know if your purchasing department is working efficiently, therefore, the objectives of the purchasing department are:

. Reduce purchasing and storage expenses.

. Generate purchase orders within the established time limit.

. Ensure the delivery of materials and the provision of services, in the time established in the purchase order.

. Minimize quality defects in purchased materials.

. Develop new or existing suppliers that contribute to reducing costs and / or delivery times.

. Ensure that providers are up to date with their payments.

. Decrease the number of “one-stop shops” to avoid supply shortages.

. Increase the participation of suppliers in internal projects of the company.

. Ensure that suppliers have current qualifications or certifications.

But remember, you must develop your objectives based on the SMART methodology (for its acronym in English) to ensure that your objectives are met:

. E S pacific: clearly define what you want to achieve

. M edible defines amounts or percentages of the result you want to achieve

. A licensable: that is something that can be made objectively consider

. R elevating: that is of importance to your company or internal clients

. A T time: date when your goal must be met

Example of a purchasing goal

purchasing goal

Reduce expenses by 8% (2,000,000 MXN) of all company departments during the next 12 months, generating new contracts and purchasing catalogs through better structured negotiations.


The buyer is responsible for carrying out all the transactions necessary to make the purchase of a material or service, such as the requisition process, the quotation, generation of the purchase order and the monitoring of invoices, and will also be in charge of generating contracts and agreements, as well as, it will be the first point of contact for the duration of the business relationship with suppliers.


The expediter is responsible for making sure that the suppliers are aware of the order and its characteristics, it will also be who will follow up between the priority orders of the company with the orders that are pending with the suppliers.


The developer is responsible for searching with existing suppliers in our company, and outside of this, different products, designs, components, services, that offer the company a cost reduction or a better service provider, and to achieve this, they must consider a variety of factors such as location, logistics costs, novelty of the product or service, risk, and the vendor’s state of maturity.

Procurement Engineer

The supply engineer is responsible for measuring the quality of the products and services purchased, in addition to supporting any of the positions to develop suppliers, this engineer must know in detail the entire supply process, since he will be the one Make sure that a supplier has everything necessary (certifications, qualifications, conditions of your company and its workers) to perform the service or product that we are going to buy in the best possible way.

Leader shopping

The purchasing leader is responsible for planning, organizing, directing and controlling the strategies to be followed by the department, and will also be responsible for reporting to senior management on the fulfillment of the purchasing team’s objectives. Among its main functions will be to motivate, guide and listen to your team, as well as to develop new ways of working that speed up and facilitate the team to meet its objectives.

Since we define the main jobs within a purchasing department, it must be clarified that if the company where you work or if your company is not large enough to hire 5 people within the department, then the buyer can perform the 5 positions (only if they do not affect your performance).

And on the contrary, if your company has more than 5 people in purchases, then your organization chart will have these same positions, but it will also have supervisors or more leaders, and with more specific positions, such as a buyer of materials and another services, or buyers, developers and supply engineers segregated by “commodities” or “products”, which is the best way to classify your jobs, but we will see this topic in more detail in another article.

If you review the organization chart, the buyer and the expediter are at the same level, because they will be in charge of handling purchase orders, communicating with their internal customers about the status of their orders, and following up with suppliers about the status of their purchase orders, so they maintain a close working relationship.

On the other hand, the developer and the purchasing engineer are at the same level, because each complements the function of the other, when the developer finds a supplier, the purchasing engineer must evaluate it and share certain improvements to be made, and the developer must In charge of carrying out the follow-up with the supplier, so that it achieves these improvements, so that both positions can develop strategies to improve the quality of the suppliers, sharing the responsibility and the tasks to be performed

It is very important that you have a specific mission and vision of the purchasing department, since these will be the pillars on which you are going to base yourself to manage your purchasing department, just make sure that these missions are integrated with the mission and vision general of your company, so that you achieve total synchrony between the purchasing department and the management of the company.

Purchasing Policies

The purchasing policy is a document that is intended to facilitate our staff to carry out the purchasing department’s strategy, since we will rely on the policy to achieve the commitment of the team, and of the areas that maintain contact with purchases, to reinforce the commitment and participation of all those involved.

The purchasing department policy serves to provide an accurate guide for leaders and employees to develop action plans that allow them to achieve their objectives.

Purchasing department policies should be as clear and simple as possible, so that they are easy to understand, and, in addition, it should be disseminated both among the department members and with our internal clients, so that they also know the work being done. In the department and the responsibility they hold.

How to develop purchasing policies?

To develop an effective purchasing policy , we must ensure that it can be done on a single page , that it maintains a language that everyone in the company can understand and, above all, that the purchasing team can really use the document as a guide to know how to perform the functions of the department.

develop purchasing policies

In my opinion, there are 3 fundamental requirements that any purchasing policy must have:

. Mention the objective of the policy.

. Define the guidelines and considerations to follow.

. Establish the responsibilities of the department and its internal clients.

Regardless of whether you want to generate purchasing policies for a private, governmental or industrial company, you must ensure that it at least meets the 3 requirements already mentioned, and try to make them brief and concise, if you do not do so, I can guarantee that no one in your department or in the company you will be able to remember them, much less take them as a guide to carry out your functions.

To make it clearer and have a better idea, I looked for a purchasing policy that meets these requirements, so if you click on this link PDF purchasing department policies (although they could have made it even easier) you can review the example and it will be easier for you to develop your own policy.

Purchasing Policies and Procedures Manual in a company

The purchasing policies and procedures manual is part of the company’s internal control system, said manual should be created to obtain specific, structured, systematic and general information on the instructions, processes and responsibilities within the purchasing department, in addition to serving for information on policies, functions, systems and procedures that are needed to perform the operation

This purchasing regulation is made in order to group all the documents necessary to develop the tasks that the purchasing department must perform in a company, but it is not mandatory to create a manual, you can maintain procedures and instructions as independent documents, but these must be easy to locate and must maintain a sequence between them, ensuring that anyone is able to understand them.

The basic elements that a company’s purchasing policy manual should contain are:

. Purchasing policy: every manual should start with the policy, and with this direct the expected behavior that any collaborator in the purchasing department should develop.

. Rules of the purchasing area: they must indicate the actions that are prohibited, the appropriate way to act and the way in which the functions of the department should be developed.

. Workflow: in this section all the instructions should be delimited so that any person in the company or new member of the purchasing team knows how to perform key tasks such as requisition, selection procedures, purchase order, approvals, and reception of goods.

. Type of purchase: the processes to meet the different types of purchases will be defined, whether they are purchases of goods or services, and the sub-classifications that the company has made of them.

. Purchases by transaction amount: define the guidelines depending on an established purchase amount, it can be a guideline for purchases of less than 29,999 MXN, another guideline for purchases of between 30,000 and 49,999 MXN, and so on to the extent deemed necessary depending of the company.

. Records: define which records to keep digitally or physically such as quotes, requisitions, purchase orders, contracts, bids, etc.

Importance of the purchasing department

The usefulness of the purchasing department lies in the ability of your department to not only be a department of control and management of expenses (reactive), but a key unit that offers your company a competitive advantage within your sector (active).

What do I mean by the above? Because normally the purchasing department works to process purchase orders, negotiate some of these, generate the occasional contract and get a few savings, all this due to the poor structure of the department, the lack of categorization in the products and / or services, and the mismanagement and communication of the departments that make the request, which results in a reactive purchase or “put out fires”, which is the most common in companies.

On the other hand, when I speak of an active purchasing department, I mean a department, which, in collaboration with the other areas, plans the supply of resources, also has a detailed structure that allows tasks to be simple and avoids bottlenecks. Bottle within the purchasing process, which allows the company to obtain its supplies at a better price, with better deliveries and with time to solve problems that were not contemplated in the plan;

Purchasing department characteristics

The main characteristic of the purchasing department is that it is the only department capable of saving and contributing to the profits of the company, since whatever the company “invests” in the salaries and services of the purchasing department, it must be able to pay himself and to get higher profits, all this through the savings generated.

That is, if a company “invests” a total of $ 200,000 monthly in the purchasing department, it must be able to achieve savings for the company of $ 600,000, I would say that the correct ratio should be at least 1 to 3, where for each peso that is “invested” in the purchasing department, and it must get 3 pesos in savings.

Other characteristics that we can find are that the department can be divided by the 2 types of purchases, which exist:

. Direct purchases: acquisition of raw materials and goods for production. An example of this would be the purchase of metal bars and machined components.

. Indirect purchases: acquisition of goods and services that allow your company to carry out its daily business activities. An example of this would be the purchase of spare parts for a machine, travel and IT services.

What are the stages of the purchase process?

Within the supply, the purchase process or cycle can be divided into 5 stages , which must be developed in the best possible way, and improve over time, to keep this important cycle running smoothly; these stages are:

  1. Requisition or purchase request.
  2. price.
  3. Purchase order or order note.
  4. Receiving supplies.
  5. Payment to suppliers.

What is the purchase requisition or purchase request?

The purchase requisition is the document or digital format (it should never be done “on paper”) with which the purchasing department is authorized to supply any good or service, which must be previously authorized, based on the amount of the request, and must be issued by the users responsible for making the requisition correctly.

. Utility: the requisition is used to communicate the need of a department of the company to the purchasing area, regarding any supply that is required for its operation.

. Function : the function of the requisition is to indicate all the requirements such as quantity, date it is needed, specifications, characteristics and / or properties that the supply must have in order for it to be useful for the company.

What is the quote?

The quote is the document or format (it should not be received “on paper” and it is acceptable to receive them by email) in which the price of a good or service, its availability and the characteristics of the offer are stipulated, to participate in the process of purchase. In some sectors, instead of calling it a quotation, they will call it a budget or an estimate, but the most commonly used term is quotation.

With the new purchasing tools, this document should remain in the past, and any quotation should be made within the online system to manage purchases (E-procurement) of the company, but as this is still out of reality, the buyer will be responsible for the proper handling of these documents, so that you can make reports that compare the quoted supplies.

. Utility: the quotation serves to communicate to the seller (through a request for quotation or RFQ) the characteristics and quantities that are needed from the supply, and also, to group all the similar needs of the company to facilitate the purchase of the supply.

. Function: the function of the quotation is to indicate all the requirements that were made in the requisition to the suppliers that can supply the product or service us need, and also serves as a guide for the buyer when choosing the supplier, since, with this we can compare prices, characteristics and delivery conditions.

What is the purchase order or order note?

The purchase order or purchase order is an agreement (it should not be issued “on paper”) that the purchasing department makes to a supplier to request a good or service, with which the supplier, depending on the payment terms, can begin to provide the service or carry out the product, without receiving a payment at that moment.

A purchase order must clearly mention the date of issue, quantity, description of the supply, identification number (if any), specifications, purchase price, payment terms, delivery method, taxes, and name and address of the buyer and seller. When the purchase order is sent to the supplier, the latter is expected to confirm receipt of the order and the date on which the order will be delivered.

purchase order or order note

Everything that is bought in a company should be done through a purchase order (there are a few exceptions), through a unique registration number, with which its use can be controlled.

. Utility: the purchase order is used so that the supplier has a document that allows him to know what to sell, it is also a promise of payment, so that the supplier begins to manage the sale, without having to pay him (in most cases)

. Function: the function of the purchase order is to confirm the price and delivery conditions, of the requirements that were made in the requisition to the suppliers.

How can I make a purchase order?

To make a purchase order, the ideal would be that you have a purchase management system that allows you to make a purchase order from the information provided in the requisition, and that later, it will take the quote data and transfer everything this to the purchase order in a semi-automatic or automatic way, and thus, minimize the error and facilitate the control and measurement of all the purchase orders.

But if your company does not have that, you only need either Excel or Microsoft Access, but as the most widely known and widely used tool is Excel, we suggest that you at least have an Excel format.

Example of a purchase order

If you need an example of a purchase order, you can download in this link a format of a purchase order with taxes, so that you only have to enter the information indicated there, but remember to add a new purchase order number each time. Make a new document. The employee’s signature can be digital.

Receiving supplies

The receipt of supplies is the process by which one or more supplies manufactured, distributed or made by a supplier arrive at our warehouse to be inspected, validated, classified and entered into our “stock” or inventory, to be able to store it until the company I needed it.

In the process of receiving supplies, we are going to carry out 2 types of receptions, the receipt of physical material, and the receipt of services, which also need to be validated to confirm that they were made and guarantee that something is paid performed.

. Utility: the receipt of supplies serves so that we can ensure that the material or service that we buy complies with the conditions in which we request it from the supplier.

. Function: the function of the reception of supplies is to receive the materials that I send or that we collected from the supplier, and to compare what the purchase order requests against what was physically received, and to prevent the transfer to “stock” if there is any difference.

Payment to suppliers

Payment to suppliers is the process where after the merchandise or service has been validated and accepted, we make a bank transfer or cash deposit according to the credit days stipulated in the purchase order, based on the invoice delivered during reception. Of the material;

We can find different types of invoices, such as:

. Ordinary invoice: it reflects in detail all the deliveries, prices and the supplier and buyer identification data.

. Commercial and preform invoice: they are only informative and serve to confirm the value of a transaction, especially in international trade.

. Electronic invoice: It is done the same as the ordinary one but its difference is that it will not be delivered physically but will be sent in electronic format.

Since we define all the stages that make up the purchase cycle in a supply chain, it is necessary to know which is the stage that can cause us the greatest problems, so it seems important to explain in more detail about the problems we can find in the supply receiving cover;

Terms and conditions of a purchase order

conditions of a purchase order

A very important point within the preparation of the purchase order, are the terms and conditions of purchase, which should be stipulated in the order, they are usually added at the end of it, and although they are often overlooked, they are a fundamental part, since the purchase order acts as an agreement and it is with these conditions that we can make our claims if necessary.

Confirmation of receipt of the purchase order

Having said that, you can imagine the importance of the supplier confirming that the purchase order has been received, previously the order had to be signed and sent back to the buyer, but now what can be done is to receive a confirmation through the system purchasing management, by email, or failing that, the simple fact of having some evidence that the supplier is processing the order, even if it is a partially finished job.

At the beginning of the work, the supplier understands that he agrees with the terms and conditions, and that is why he has started to do the work, or that for that reason, he has confirmed receipt. It is important that as buyers with each new supplier and even every certain time, a “refresh” or review of these conditions is carried out with the suppliers, so that they have no excuses when we make our conditions valid.

External records in our purchase order

It is advised that for no reason the supplier’s quote number or any other identification number of a supplier’s process should be entered, since by doing this we may harm the terms and conditions of our purchase order, by including a number of supplier registrations we are validating the conditions linked to that registration number.

This is why I recommend issuing quotes under your own registration numbers, and thus not having “loopholes” when enforcing our conditions.

How to make the terms and conditions of purchase?

The terms and conditions must be prepared by your legal department, in conjunction with the purchasing department, to know exactly what conditions are needed, we can add conditions to protect and ensure that the supply will be delivered on time and in the conditions agreed upon, so you can add some penalty for late deliveries, some penalty for low quality, or like him not disclosing information that is intellectual property of the company.

Quality in purchases

As I had already mentioned at the beginning, the receipt of supplies plays a key role in the purchasing process, since it is where the receipt inspection process is carried out, during which the quality of purchases will be reviewed, therefore It does not matter if you are a large or small or even a micro company, you must have a process that allows you to define what are the parameters to accept a good or service.

The key points to take into account during the quality review in purchases will depend on the line of business of each company, but it does not matter if you are a grocery store or a large information technology (IT) consulting firm, Everyone must have a checklist or blog, either digital or printed, that serves as a guide to know what to check when receiving a good or service, and for this, the purchase specifications are normally used.

What are the purchase specifications?

The purchase specifications are the description and the precise characteristics of the requirements with which the purchased material or service must meet, mentioning the tolerance levels allowed (minimum and maximum).

Depending on the business of your company, the specifications may be provided by the engineering area, the quality area, the user requesting the material or a standard of services or products, but these must be as clear and understandable as possible, in order to avoid setbacks with your suppliers.

Also make sure to hold talks every so often with your suppliers, where you share tips that help them better and more easily understand your specifications.

What should the purchase specifications include?

Within the purchase specifications must include relevant information such as size, weight, unit of measure, physical or chemical properties, the use of material, technical specifications and performance and specifications brand if you can only use certain suppliers to make that component you want to buy.

The Inspection Plan

The Inspection Plan is a detailed program that contains the necessary information about the tests, services and parameters that must be reviewed of a material, machine, product or service, this will help us to define the characteristics that must be inspected in each operation only from the purchased materials, but also from those produced, but here we will focus on the purchased ones.

The Inspection plan is divided into the following elements:

. Inspection Operation: indicates the actions to be carried out during the inspection of the different goods or services received.

. Inspection Characteristic: indicates the unique qualities that a certain good or service possesses, and thus, ensure that they are inspected with the appropriate instrument.

. Inspection instrument: it is the tool that the inspector will use to validate that the characteristics of the good or service have been met.


Now that we have carried out all these actions, we can confirm whether or not the good or service is in accordance with the purchase specifications, and in the event that it is not in accordance, a Non-Conformity would have to be raised , which must be notified to the department. of purchases so that they can claim the supplier, and thus, get the replacement of the material, perform the service again or, failing that, make a credit note.

Regardless of the case, all these Non-Conformities will have to be measured and it will help us to evaluate the suppliers, this will be discussed in detail later.


Now you know the 10 elements that make up an effective purchasing department:

  1. Understand what a purchasing department is
  2. Understand your responsibilities and roles
  3. Define your goals
  4. Structure department positions
  5. Establish purchasing policies
  6. Identify the purchasing area as a competitive advantage
  7. Analyze its characteristics
  8. Correctly develop all the stages of the purchase process
  9. Establish terms and conditions to protect the interests of the company
  10. Evaluate quality within purchases

If you carry out each of the points in your company, you will go from a purchasing department without structure to a department with defined bases and functions, but that does not mean that you can already sit down and rest, this was just the beginning.

Now we must know how to manage a purchasing department, that is, now we have to direct and manage the efforts of our department (which we already have well structured), and thus, obtain greater savings, better deliveries, and better relationships with suppliers. . We will see this in the following articles.